Metabolic Disorders Articles

Hyponatremia in the Elderly: Risk Factors, Clinical Consequences, and Management

Alterations associated with the normal aging process may compromise homeostatic systems involved in the regulation of fluid balance including thirst perception that govern fluid intake, the kidney, regulation of secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) or antidiuretic hormone, atrial natriuretic hormone, and the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system. Clinicians involved in the care of the elderly recognize that disturbances of water and electrolyte balance, especially hyponatremia, are common in this age group.1

Despite wide ranges in intake of sodium and water in normal persons, serum s

Nonvertebral Fractures Due to Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: Evaluation of Effective Preventive Interventions

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by compromised bone strength that predisposes affected individuals to an increased risk for fracture.1 In the United States, 20% of postmenopausal white women have osteoporosis. An additional 52% have low bone mass at the hip, placing them at an increased risk for osteoporotic fractures.2 However, osteoporosis is often asymptomatic until fracture occurs. Even after fracture, patients often are not treated. One year after a first hip or wrist fracture, only 4-5% of women 50 years or older were taking medications to reduce the risk of a s